Worcester Polytechnical Institute Suggests Melted Steel and Silver Dollar Sized Holes Caused by Sulfur Possibly From Acid Rain

Note: This article is in fact over 4 years old, since it has already been posted it will still be listed, sorry for the confusion.

The "Deep Mystery" of Melted Steel - wpi.edu

There is no indication that any of the fires in the World Trade Center buildings were hot enough to melt the steel framework. Jonathan Barnett, professor of fire protection engineering, has repeatedly reminded the public that steel--which has a melting point of 2,800 degrees Fahrenheit--may weaken and bend, but does not melt during an ordinary office fire. Yet metallurgical studies on WTC steel brought back to WPI reveal that a novel phenomenon--called a eutectic reaction--occurred at the surface, causing intergranular melting capable of turning a solid steel girder into Swiss cheese.

Materials science professors Ronald R. Biederman and Richard D. Sisson Jr. confirmed the presence of eutectic formations by examining steel samples under optical and scanning electron microscopes. A preliminary report was published in JOM, the journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. A more detailed analysis comprises Appendix C of the FEMA report. The New York Times called these findings "perhaps the deepest mystery uncovered in the investigation." The significance of the work on a sample from Building 7 and a structural column from one of the twin towers becomes apparent only when one sees these heavy chunks of damaged metal.

A one-inch column has been reduced to half-inch thickness. Its edges--which are curled like a paper scroll--have been thinned to almost razor sharpness. Gaping holes--some larger than a silver dollar--let light shine through a formerly solid steel flange. This Swiss cheese appearance shocked all of the fire-wise professors, who expected to see distortion and bending--but not holes.

A eutectic compound is a mixture of two or more substances that melts at the lowest temperature of any mixture of its components. Blacksmiths took advantage of this property by welding over fires of sulfur-rich charcoal, which lowers the melting point of iron. In the World Trade Center fire, the presence of oxygen, sulfur and heat caused iron oxide and iron sulfide to form at the surface of structural steel members. This liquid slag corroded through intergranular channels into the body of the metal, causing severe erosion and a loss of structural integrity.

"The important questions," says Biederman, "are how much sulfur do you need, and where did it come from? The answer could be as simple--and this is scary- as acid rain."

(more after the jump..)

Have environmental pollutants increased the potential for eutectic reactions? "We may have just the inherent conditions in the atmosphere so that a lot of water on a burning building will form sulfuric acid, hydrogen sulfide or hydroxides, and start the eutectic process as the steel heats up," Biederman says. He notes that the sulfur could also have come from contents of the burning buildings, such as rubber or plastics. Another possible culprit is ocean salts, such as sodium sulfate, which is known to catalyze sulfidation reactions on turbine blades of jet engines. "All of these things have to be explored," he says.

From a building-safety point of view, the critical question is: Did the eutectic mixture form before the buildings collapsed, or later, as the remains smoldered on the ground. "We have no idea," admits Sisson. "To answer that, we would need to recreate those fires in the FPE labs, and burn fresh steel of known composition for the right time period, with the right environment." He hopes to have the opportunity to collaborate on thermodynamically controlled studies, and to observe the effects of adding sulfur, copper and other elements. The most important lesson, Sisson and Biederman stress, is that fail-safe sprinkler systems are essential to prevent steel from reaching even 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit, because phase changes at the 1,300-degree mark compromise a structure's load-bearing capacity.

The FEMA report calls for further metallurgic investigations, and Barnett, Biederman and Sisson hope that WPI will obtain NIST funding and access to more samples. They are continuing their microscopic studies on the samples prepared by graduate student Jeremy Bernier and Marco Fontecchio, the 2001–02 Helen E. Stoddard Materials Science and Engineering Fellow. (Next year's Stoddard Fellow, Erin Sullivan, will take up this work as part of her graduate studies.) Publication of their results may clear up some mysteries that have confounded the scientific community.

Thanks Jeff for the heads up!

i bet it is hard to figure

i bet it is hard to figure out when you rule out anything but the official explanation.. bah.

so, acid rain raining on the pile combined with other chemicals and ate holes through inch thick steel.. hrm.

Does thermite ring any

Does thermite ring any bells?

the NIST is still working on

the NIST is still working on an explanation for WTC7. That's the time it takes to come up with an alternative to controlled demo.


So "acid rain" deluted by 100s of 1000s of gallons of water from firetrucks for several weeks magically caused steel to become molten and still maintain well over 1300 degree temps 5 weeks later?

Yeah, I gotta bridge overlooking some prime swampland I need to sell to anyone ignorant enough to swallow that BS.
That has to be the most far reaching pile of crap I heard yet.

Acid Brain

Boy they're really scraping the bottom of the barrel here. What's next? Moltem magma from a volcano located beneath the towers?

Funny you mention it...

It just so happens that they have tried to compare the collapse of the towers to a volcano. I was watching the History Channel around the 5th anniversary and some volcano "expert" said he knew right away what caused the collapse of the twin towers. He called it a column collapse. Essentially, it's a phenomenon that occurs when a portion of a volcano collapses and hot gasses and debris shoot up into the air, creating a column of ash and gas that then collapse back down when the mass is too heavy.. Kind of like Mt. Saint Helens. I still don’t see the comparison.

-----From a decon @ my church: "I want to tell you something very serious...very serious, but I don't want you to say 'I told you so'. I want you to forgive me.......You were right. I know the truth about 9/11

Closing italics

Well, at least I tried :o(

Never mind.

Nothing to see here ... move along ...

FYI, jones talked about this


jones talked about this sulfur, and how this was a very important piece of information which was largely ignored. his suggestion was that sulfur added to thermite makes thermate i believe.


Yep, you're correct. The addition of sulpher as an enhancement is what makes TherMITE into TherMATE.

Oh and LOL @ the volcano comment. The sad part is, people would believe it, as long as government scientists were saying it.

And, furthermore, acid rain

And, furthermore, acid rain doesn't deposit large amounts of sulfur... It's formed through sulfer dioxide and nitrogen, but doesn't result in large concentrations of either compound where it falls. Also, sulfer dioxide is actually a biproduct of burning sulpher, but is not itself sulfer.

Oh come on.....

Future headline: "Acid rain brings down WTC1, 2 & 7"

Engineers should be a little smarter than that.

Plastic Macks for construction sites

Look acres of plastic tenting over steel frame contruction sites in future--at least where there's acid rain.

That was supposed to be

That was supposed to be "Look for acres..."

My bad.

And it still smells of sulfur, even today



these guys are funny!

expect more/sharper censorship. this will hurt.

Will Google gobble up YouTube?
Search giant reportedly in talks to acquire video site for $1.6 billion
MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif. - Internet search leader Google Inc. is in talks to acquire the popular online video site YouTube Inc. for about $1.6 billion, The Wall Street Journal reported Friday, citing a person familiar with the matter.

all this fear about the internet being attacked because it is our greatest resource is founded in fact. consolidation is the way to go. if they cant outright censor, they will just buy up everything.

Terrorstorm censorship over?

FYI Terrorstorm is in the top 100 now. Has Google Censorship caved again to pressure from Alex and the 9/11 bloggers? Power to the people if so.

This is the article that started me on 9/11 Truth...

3 years ago. I thought everyone had seen it by now.

Excellent find.

Keep up the good work, all you ferrets.



experiment obvious

It may have been said above but, the experiment is obvious. It is essentially survey data. Do a random sample of buildings approximately of the same age in NY and determine if the - massive steel beams - of those buildings show similar erosion. Whadda bet? Look at some older ones too..... that should tell the story.

"There are none so hoplessly enslaved as those who falsely believe they are free" (Goethe)..... a paraphrase from V: Cast aside the illusions. Only when you are finally hopeless can you truly be free.

experiment addendum...

And for give the addendum. But, you also could simply look at the remains of 6 and 5. The point is, to be tedious, is that IF there is steel erosion that does not fit the profile for thermite or thermate but is also not evident in other, similar structures, THEN, a different process, one that is UNIQUE to 9/11 selectively affecting the buildings in question.

Gee, a whoe new technology of destruction to investigate.....

"There are none so hoplessly enslaved as those who falsely believe they are free" (Goethe).....

Physical evidence is

Physical evidence is problematic because these guys can always find some 'expert' to make it prove whatever they want it to. That expert will be the one chosen to explain everything on TV. Then the general populace can be relied upon to believe the 'expert' rather than their own common sense. If people can be convinced that the 'magic bullet theory' was reasonable, or that the Zapruder film shows JFK getting shot from behind, then they can easily be convinced that acid rain caused the holes in the wtc steel. Maybe that's a poor comparison, it's not 'physical evidence' in the sense that sulfur on steel is, but it's what comes to mind...
Maybe Mike Ruppert's approach of avoiding physical evidence is a wise one.

Your doing unjustice to

Your doing unjustice to Michael Ruppert. Ruppert didn't advice to avoid physical evidence.

He thought it's a better idea to start with other evidence when campaigning and discussing: all the lies, the cover-up activities, the political manouvers, "Cui Bono?"-questions,.... and proceed from there to all other evidence.

My personal take is that there is no chance for winning over everyone with one magic bullet. People and personalities are different.

Some will react on "Controlled Demolition (with a twist)" hints.

Some will get outraged by seeing whistleblowers ignored, and 9/11 Commission covering up.

Some will get suspicious when seeing the wargames going on, and hints about the standdown orders.

Some will outrage when confronted with "Lucky Larry" Silverstein's windfall profits reapt by his clever anti-terrorism insurance.

Some will not believe that the TV "live" videos are un-edited.

Some will get outraged by seeing the Bushitler Enabling Acts....

In the end, one doubt leads to the next, to the next, to the next, ... to the demand for a New, True, Open Investigation, or even to the "inside job" conclusion.

We do not know the full truth yet. But we know we are lied into our faces every minute.

All steel structures should

All steel structures should be taken down today.... there is absolutely no reason that we should risk the lives of the millions of people who work in or around steel structured buildings.... we now know that due to the damaging effects of acid rain that no steel structured building is truely capable of withstanding the cataclysmic effect to their structure.

I'm surprised that insurace companies have continued to insure this type of structure after this revelation.

and for gods sake please refrain from going outside in a rain storm.... we are witnessing the end of our world as we know it.

my car is melting as we speak



Rock on, you crazy bastard!